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From Pipi’s Pasture: The worst blizzard in 19 years

County residents are still talking about the recent blizzard so there's not a lot left to tell. However, we're still dealing with the storm's aftermath so that's what is on my mind this week. We've experienced plenty of blizzards in the approximately nineteen years that we've lived here at Pipi's Pasture, but this one is the worst we can remember.

The evening of the blizzard, after it had blown all day, Lyle and I headed for the shop to feed two bottle calves. We had to climb over deep, deep drifts around the front porch, and then we found snow drifted to about two feet. It was crusted so making a path wasn't easy. Lyle went ahead of me, but my short legs just couldn't follow his long-legged gait. We made it, though, and came back to the house. I did fall down in the snow about halfway to the house which required some tricky maneuvering to get upright again.

It is my usual habit to go to the corral to fill stock tanks each afternoon, but this time (the first time ever) I knew that I couldn't make it through the drifted snow. The corral cattle had been fed and watered that morning so I decided that the safest thing to do was stay at the house until morning.

The next morning, Lyle warmed up the tractor and made a tractor-tire path to the shop and another to the corral, remarkable considering that one of the big gates to the hay yard/corral wasn't drifted shut and he was able to gain entry to the corral area.

So after feeding the calves, I took my bucket of grain and a shovel and followed the tire path to feed the cattle at the corral. I found that the snow had drifted up against the corral fence so that I had to walk on the crusted snow to put out hay. Luckily, I had left the gate leading into the smaller part of the corral open a little bit after the first big snowstorm of the season. That way I could squeeze into the corral without opening the gate, but the cows couldn't push themselves out. With a little shoveling, I was able to get into the corral. However, finding the water tanks was a little more difficult since they were under drifted snow. I uncovered one tank and planned to find another one elsewhere that day.

The two animals in the larger corral share a stock tank with feedlot cattle. The snow had drifted off the ground around the water hydrant, and the cattle had not consumed the water in the tank during the blizzard. Everything was in good shape there.

I had to do lots of shoveling to make paths along the corral fence, places where there had not been paths before. The paths are on top of buckets, feed pans, mineral tubs, and a lot of other stuff that I've forgotten about.

While I was busy shoveling snow and finishing chores, Lyle plowed a path through a gate so that we could feed cows in the feedlot. A thoughtful neighbor drove his tractor over and helped Lyle plow the driveway, the lane into the house, and the area around the haystack. He even helped Lyle feed the cows while I worked away at the corral.

Our sons and families called to check on us; they heard about the blizzard and told us about all of the closed roads. We were fine. We got plowed out, we had food, the house was warm, the animals got fed and watered, and the baby calves in the feedlot survived the blizzard — even those born the day before the blizzard. I was able to work by phone.

And at this writing, it is the first day of spring, and a robin is sitting in the crabapple tree that's next to the dining room window.

Over a Cup of Coffee: Jessica’s cookies

This week's recipe for "Cowboy Cookies" was sent to me by our granddaughter, Jessica Prather, who lives in Vernal, Utah. She got it from her friend Lucia. Jessica says that her dad and brother, Jaycee, are "addicted" to the cookies. Please note that you need to use the exact amount of flour as called for in the recipe. Thanks, Jessica!

Who doesn't like Oreos? "Oreo Ice Cream Dessert," the other recipe in this week's column is from my files. It might be a great dessert for Easter.

Cowboy Cookies

• 1 cup butter

• 1 cup brown sugar

• 1 cup sugar

• 2 eggs

• 1 teaspoon vanilla

• 2 cups flour (* Be careful because this can make or break the recipe.)

• 1 teaspoon baking soda

• ½ teaspoon baking powder

• ½ teaspoon salt

• 1 cup coconut

• 2 cups oatmeal

• Chocolate chips/nuts, optional

Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Cream butter and sugars. Add the eggs and vanilla. Add in dry ingredients. By hand, add coconut, oatmeal, and chocolate chips/nuts (optional). Bake for 8 to 10 minutes. (*Note: Jessica wrote that after experimenting she found that 10-12 minutes baking time is better.) Let cool and enjoy. (* Note: Use the exact amount of flour.)

Sent in by Jessica Prather, Vernal, Utah. Recipe from Lucia.

Oreo Ice Cream Dessert

• 1 pound package Oreo cookies

• Half gallon ice cream

• Medium to large container Cool Whip

• 1 Cup chopped pecans

Crush the Oreos. Mix the ice cream (your choice of flavor) with the Oreos. Stir in Cool Whip and pecans. Pack into an angel food pan or 9×13-inch glass dish. Wrap well and freeze. Enjoy!

Do you have recipes that you would like to share with readers? If so, please send them to me at Box 415, Craig 81626 or call me at 824-8809. Think Easter. It will be here before we know it.

Living Well: When to seek medical treatment for the flu or common cold

Did you know flu season can last as late as May? It's not too late to get a flu vaccine, which can help reduce the risk of flu illness by up to 60 percent, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

This flu season, patients around the region have presented flu symptoms with or without documented fever but with the sensation of feeling feverish and chills, said Allison Hamburger, Physician Assistant at Memorial Regional Health. Frequent symptoms this flu season also include headache, cough, sore throat, body aches, and fatigue. Often there is a lot of rhinitis (runny nose) or nasal congestion, and sometimes diarrhea and vomiting, she said.

Flu symptoms should be evaluated by medical providers to determine the best treatment options for each patient. Some symptoms require immediate medical attention (see fact box).

"I feel the best way to shorten the duration of flu symptoms is to get vaccinated. The goal is to prevent the flu, but if such happens, being vaccinated should still help reduce severity," Hamburger said. "If flu symptoms present, the quicker you are evaluated the better, as starting Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) ASAP will also help shorten the duration of symptoms."

This season's flu vaccine appears to succeed in reducing the severity of symptoms, according to Jennifer Schmitt, a Physician Assistant at MRH's Rapid Care Clinic. The vaccine can't guarantee flu prevention, but it can help minimize symptoms compared to those who didn't get a flu shot.

Hamburger notes a 2018 CDC report as another case for getting a flu vaccine. The report showed that among adults hospitalized with the flu, vaccinated patients were 59 percent less likely to be admitted to the ICU than those who were unvaccinated. Another 2017 study showed that the flu vaccine reduced deaths, ICU admission, ICU length of stay and overall hospitalization among flu patients.


To prevent spreading the flu, Schmitt said it's important to wash your hands frequently and to stay home from work or school while contagious, which is usually the first 3 to 4 days after the symptoms began. The CDC also recommends staying home for 24 hours after a fever has resolved.

For those with flu or common cold symptoms, Hamburger said staying hydrated and rested are essential.

"I encourage patients and parents of young patients to have a very attentive focus on hydration. Fever can lead to dehydration and your body needs the extra fluids," Hamburger said.

"An electrolyte solution like Pedialyte or Gatorade is a good idea because the added salt and sugar will help maintain one's fluid balance. Control fever with Tylenol (Acetaminophen) or Ibuprofen as needed."

There are anecdotal remedies that can't hurt to try, either. Hamburger notes that warm baths help her children relax when they're feeling crummy,

For anyone who suspects they have the flu and medical treatment is desired, Hamburger said the ideal window to seek treatment is within the first 48 hours from the start of symptoms.

The Suction Clinic for babies and young children

Babies and young children who get upper respiratory tract infections often can't blow their nose or otherwise clear nasal secretions and mucus well on their own. That's where MRH's Suction Clinic can provide relief — for the kids as well as their parents.

The Suction Clinic's respiratory therapists use a nasopharyngeal suction machine to suck out secretions, and they evaluate children by counting the respiratory rate and checking for oxygen saturation.

The Suction Clinic is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Hamburger said parents can get a prescription and it can be used up to 4 times a day for a week. There's no appointment needed and the cost is $128 per visit, which is billed to insurance. To check in, visit the emergency department's main desk and let them know you're there for the Suction Clinic.

Janet Sheridan: Dealing with relationships

When I scanned an online list of behaviors guaranteed to nurture relationships, two items caught my eye — keep a sense of humor and compliment generously. "Hmm," I thought, "Maybe those suggestions could improve my relationship with my vacuum." So the next time the voracious machine began to eat an area rug, I pulled it back gently and said, "I want you to know I really appreciate your enthusiasm for your work;" then added, after a pause for dramatic effect, "Have you heard the one about the lady who complained her vacuum didn't do anything but gather dust?"

With my vacuum soothed into cooperation, I decided to see what I could do to ease my relationship with water. Due to medications I currently take, I'm supposed to down at least two quarts of water daily. By the end of each day, I approach the innocent and essential liquid reluctantly, down it unhappily, and blame it for the predictable eventuality of one more trip to the bathroom. Perhaps another suggestion from the list, share goals, could help: "It's important for my health that I get enough sleep and drink lots of you, so could you try to be a bit zingier and appealing as the day wears on and linger a little longer in my bladder when I'm napping?"

The list also advised me to admit my mistakes, which could help my relationship with crocheting. The next time I create a granny blob rather than a granny square, I'll take a deep breath before saying, "I'm so sorry; I obviously misread the directions. Again. It's not your fault. Give me a minute to go drink some water and compliment the vacuum, then we'll try it again."

Another item on the list cautioned against taking relationships for granted, which is the mistake I made with George RR Martin, author of the series, "A Song of Fire and Ice." I read the first book in 1997 and over the next fifteen years read four more books as soon as they appeared. When I finished each, I assumed Mr. Martin would eventually write another. And he did. So when it was time for winter to arrive in the sixth novel, I believed the rotund, heavily whiskered author was working diligently on book six.

Then HBO's blockbuster series, "A Game of Thrones," based on Martin's series, sidetracked him for eight years by making him a co-executive producer. So I waited in vain for book six. Now I realize I took his masterful, complex writing for granted. Perhaps if I'd written fan letters glowing with appreciation every month, followed by letters of pleading when the sixth book didn't appear, he would have spurned HBO's offer. But I doubt it.

The list also recommended working through difficulties, a notion which might benefit my relationship with pillar candles. Their tiny flames mesmerize me and bring a feeling of warmth and beauty to my home. Unfortunately, they are usually scented, and perfumed candles make my headache and my nose drip. I've tried working through this difficulty by switching to battery-operated candles, which glow rather nicely but cannot duplicate the fascination of a flickering flame. I've also considered wearing a surgical mask when I use perfumed candles but fear doing so would startle my husband and destroy the ambience of a candlelit home. Thus my relationship with perfumed candles is as doomed as a Kardashian marriage.

The last item on the list urged me to strengthen my relationships by being forgiving when necessary. So here goes: I forgive those who love hot chili peppers and look askance at me because I don't. Go ahead, friends, siblings, and husband, rave about hot peppers, crave their heat, feel your face flush, let moisture drip from your eyes and run down your cheeks while you exclaim about the deliciousness of the food you've ruined by inserting them. I forgive you.

Lance Scranton: Traveling down the road together

If you are traveling over the break, it is safe to say that you'll recognize some of the familiar characteristics of getting from point A to point B. It is traveling's most comforting attribute as you are cruising down the highway, your favorite song on the radio, the temperature is perfect, and you anticipate the destination but the trip itself is part of the adventure.

Living in Northwest Colorado affords many opportunities to head out on the highway and look for adventure or whatever comes our way (thanks Steppenwolf). Whatever your reasons for travel; it is the opportunity that takes place anytime there are more than one in the vehicle. Countless trips are made in which the driver and passenger(s) have one of the most time-honored of human interactions — the conversation!

The conversation takes place almost out of necessity because the close quarters of the cabin make it seem just a little wired unless you are talking to each other. It is one of the best ways to get to know someone better, listen to a long story, or even come to some pretty amazing understandings about each other.

I've often thought that if we forced the two individuals running for president to travel together (away from their handlers and echo chambers) and would actually talk to each other; debates would look a whole lot different. Each representative of the myriad special interest groups, focus groups, and the polling data mercenaries would actually take the time to understand what drives people like Donald Trump or Hillary Clinton.

Sure, the two candidates scoffed at and scolded each other but I'm certain they had more than a few things in common that a trip together (a third passenger to mitigate obvious points of departure would be necessary) would uncover. It has never been the case that if two people who disagree with each other’s ideas ideologically spend any amount of time together; they wouldn't find ways to recognize and understand their differences.

People who I've been unsure of, or, didn't know very well, suddenly become all-to-human when we sit down and have a conversation together. So, let's hear it for less technology and more traveling together. It would make things so much better in our country and with each other. Take a trip, make sure you drive, bring along a couple of people you don't know very well (but have to deal with) and it is a certainty that upon your arrival, the relationships will be different.

Unless you don't arrive and then we will know that things didn't go as this writer predicted!

Prather’s Pick: Looking ahead to Easter

Easter is about a month away, but this week's picture book for kids is really special. If you decide to find "The Easter Egg," written and illustrated by Jan Brett, you will have time before Easter.

Author/illustrator Jan Brett is well-known for her intricate and detailed pictures. Her work is truly spectacular. At each turn of the page, the reader finds a big (two-page) picture.  Besides that, the margins to the top left, and right of the pictures feature cameos with clues as to what else is going on outside of the main pictures. There is a lot for the reader to take in, indeed!

Another Easter book is Hoppi the tale of a young bunny that is the main character. He opens his window one spring morning to take in the sights and sounds. A robin sings. The trees are beginning to turn green, and the sky is blue. Hoppi is excited because this year he is old enough to decorate his first-ever Easter egg,

In Rabbit Town, it's a tradition for the citizens to decorate Easter eggs. The bunny who decorates the winning egg gets to ride in the carriage with the Easter Rabbit and help him hide the eggs.

So Hoppi goes outside to get some ideas for decorating his egg. He's dressed in a blue coat with a bell fringe. All of the story's characters are dressed in beautifully-designed clothes. The forest is green with new ferns and covered with spring flowers, such as violas, hyacinths, and lilies.

All of the bunny "citizens" are hard at it, decorating their own Easter eggs. First, Hoppi finds Flora Bunny, an Angora rabbit. She is busy filling colored eggs with potting soil and flowers. She already has several Easter eggs loaded into a cart. Flora gives Hoppi a basket for his own flowers.

Next, Hoppi finds Buster Birch, a mixed-breed bunny, who is carving an egg from wood. He puts a piece of wood in Hoppi's basket. Then Aunt Sassyfrass, a Lop rabbit, and some younger bunnies are decorating chocolate eggs with flowers, bows, and squiggles. Aunt Sassyfrass gives Hoppi some squares of chocolate.

Granny Ireney is a Himalayan rabbit. She is making story eggs with incredible designs. She gives Hoppi a special tool to make his own eggs.

Hoppi visits other bunnies, too, including one who is making robot eggs, but he still doesn't have an idea for his own special Easter egg. So Hoppi sits down under a tree to think.

Meanwhile, since the beginning of the story, cameos in the book showcase bunnies making a whole lot of other eggs—you won't believe it. Also, at the top of each two-page spread, a pair of robins has been building a nest and Mother Robin has been keeping eggs warm. Then a pair of squirrels comes along and knocks one of the eggs onto the ground. Mother Robin is terribly upset.

Hoppi is sitting close to the egg. He knows just what to do.

A fold-out page reveals the Easter Rabbit's decorated carriage, pulled by golden Buff Cochin chickens. It's a sight to behold. Who will get to ride with the Easter Rabbit?

Brett used several breeds of real-life rabbits as models for her story characters. She thanks them, by name, at the beginning of the book.

"The Easter Egg" is published by G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2010. It costs $17.99 in hardcover. Also, look for it in the children's room at the Craig branch of Moffat County Libraries.

From the Museum Archives: The mammoth that made the museum

Sheer luck. There's no other way to describe Seighardt Klaus' mammoth discovery back in 1961.

Living 5 miles north of Craig, Seighardt was digging a well when his drill bit suddenly brought up a couple of pieces of ivory from 15 feet below. Klaus and his wife had no doubt they had something special and began to spread the word, but the local community was skeptical.

The Klauses contacted Dr. Untermann, a paleontologist with the museum in Vernal, Utah, to tell him of their discovery. He made a visit almost immediately. Soon after Untermann's arrival, enough dirt was removed to see part of a mammoth skull with tusks measuring 10 inches in diameter.

The local community went from skeptical to downright jubilant about having such an amazing find in their backyard. However, the Klauses had already given their word to Dr. Untermann that the museum in Vernal could keep the specimen; there wasn't much anybody could do about it. Utah was digging it up, and Utah was where it was headed.

Petitions, meetings and even communication with the governor of Colorado were quickly initiated in an effort to keep Utah from obtaining the local artifact. The thought of Northwest Colorado shipping one of their prize treasures was unthinkable, but at the end of the day, there wasn't a place in Craig to display such an artifact anyway.

As soon as the tusks crossed the Utah state line on the back of a truck, it was determined that such a travesty could never be allowed to happen again. Louise Miller, a prominent local public servant, began lengthy correspondence with Dr. Untermann to determine what was involved in creating Craig’s own museum. Even though Untermann's museum "stole" the mammoth from the people of Northwest Colorado, it was Untermann who freely gave guidance to Louise regarding the long, arduous process of starting a museum from scratch.

When Moffat County expanded their courthouse in 1964, extra space was included and Louise recognized an opportunity. Along with a group of dedicated volunteers, Louise quickly formalized a museum charter to be funded by the Moffat County government. After acquiring the space in the courthouse, four years were then spent forming relationships and slowly acquiring important artifacts. In 1968, the Moffat County Museum officially opened its doors to the public. It eventually outgrew the courthouse and moved to the old State Armory in 1991 where it was renamed the Museum of Northwest Colorado.

Louise Miller recognized the significant history contained in Northwest Colorado and envisioned a regional museum that would help uncover and tell its fascinating stories. Through the dedication, passion and tedious work of not just Louise, but our amazing staff and volunteers throughout the years, the museum has grown into a nationally acclaimed institution visited by thousands of people worldwide every year.

Paul Knowles is assistant director of the Museum of Northwest Colorado. This article originally appeared as a "Museum Monday" post on the museum's Facebook page. To see the Custer Colt and learn more of its story, drop by the Museum of Northwest Colorado at 590 Yampa Ave., or visit the museum's Facebook page, facebook.com/MuseumNorthwestColorado.

Under the Dome: Successful transition to State Senate

I skipped a month writing columns after six years of never missing one. If you read them let me know. I suppose it's because I'm still adjusting to moving over to the Senate and to the fact that my party is in the minority in both houses. I'm still on the Joint Budget Committee so that at least didn't change except for having four of the six-members being new to the job.

I was selected in January, although narrowly, by a ten-person vacancy committee to replace resigning Senator Randy Baumgardner. My wife Joyce applied to a subset of six of the same vacancy committee to replace me but was roundly rejected. Our District 57 went unrepresented for months and is now represented by a novice. Our vacancy committees are not large enough to reflect the will of our party or to select the most qualified candidate. Sour grapes? Maybe.

The Senate is very different from the House. It's quieter and more efficient, and most of us know each other from serving together in the house. It's altogether a more pleasant place to work, and we adjourn sooner so that I can get back to the budget work. I now represent a very large and diverse Senate district. It includes gas wells, coal mines, the greatest resort towns in the country, ranches and retirement communities. It's a challenge but my work background, six years in the legislature, and my senior role on the budget committee should qualify me. I'll need to be a pragmatist to have a positive effect.

The Democrats seem to have a list of issues saved up for two years that they are working through with locked in votes of their members and naught but futile protests and filibuster from our side. So far they have passed a bill to join the popular vote (read California) in national elections. And a new set of regulations for the Oil and Gas industry that most say will dramatically impact its future (read jobs and taxes in western Colorado). Comprehensive sex education is underway and soon to come is paid family leave, red flag (gun seizure), eliminating the TABOR cap (delaying my work to repeal the Gallagher amendment while they do this), and who knows what else? Every day is a surprise.

I'm trying in this environment to both have my say (that of my constituents) and also run some bills. I'm working on health care cost transparency and reducing the cost of health insurance in western Colorado. I'm working with Joyce, who's your elected member of the State Board of Education on education reform including a new approach to our failed Read Act, and a major bill on teacher preparation. I also have a bill to allow special districts for early childhood development. I'll be carrying many bills on behalf of the Joint Budget Committee including one related to our continuing concerns over wasteful spending on information technology. I will continue to advocate for rural Colorado on every issue including agriculture, water, education, economic development, and transportation. But the reality is that rural legislators are simply outnumbered.

The budget is interesting this year. There is a lot of money this year but new requests including $227 million for full-day Kindergarten and a continuing strong lobby for more money in education overall. I'm concerned that we don't overcommit and have to take unpopular cuts in the future. I'll ask for more in transportation and to eliminate the wait list for those with developmental disabilities who need services. We see a slowing of the economy and a recession but who knows when?

If you've gotten this far and read my columns, send me a note: bob.rankin.senate@state.co.us

Memorial Regional Health: Feeling tired, fatigued? It could be a lack of quality sleep

Editor’s note: The following article is sponsored by Memorial Regional Health. A few portions of this article previously appeared in a separate MRH-sponsored article in the Craig Press.

Do you feel excessively tired or unrefreshed during the day? Does your partner complain of loud snoring or notice pauses in breathing during sleep?

Sleep apnea can be a serious disorder due to complications that can include high blood pressure, heart problems, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, liver problems and more, according to the Mayo Clinic. It can also cause sleep deprivation for the partners of those with the condition, and it can cause complications with medications and surgery.

Sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and narcolepsy, which is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep, are more prevalent than people realize, said Selena Hafey, Polysomnographic Technologist and Certified Sleep Study Technologist at Memorial Regional Health.

"Sleep is important, and people need to value their sleep," she said. "I hear the phrase often, 'sleep is for the weak,' and I could not disagree more. Sleep is for everyone. People need sleep to function, and it needs to be a priority."

Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common of all sleep disorders. The airway collapses or is blocked during sleep, causing shallow breathing or a pause in breathing. Pauses can last a few seconds or minutes and can occur 30 or more times in one hour. The person starts breathing again, sometimes with a choking sound or loud snort as they gasp for air.

Because of interrupted sleep, they are left tired and drowsy during the day — often relying on stimulants like coffee or soda to stay awake. Sometimes with sleep apnea, people have no energy so they don't want to do anything, and their doctors mistakenly treat them for depression. In addition, people commonly have morning headaches from the decrease in oxygen.

"Quality sleep helps repair the mind and body. A lack of quality sleep can take a toll on the body,  which can lead to things such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and depression," Hafey said. "Please make time for sleep —  it is important!"

Diagnosis and treatment

Sleep apnea is diagnosed with a sleep study, which Memorial Regional Health can provide nearly every night of the week. Sleep studies are also available during the day for people who work unconventional shifts.

The room is set up like a bedroom in a home to make patients feel comfortable. Hafey begins by wiring the patient with leg EMG wires, EKG wires, chest and abdomen belts, and EEG and EOG wires on the head that can read the patient's sleeping and waking brain waves.

"After the wires are applied the patient is allowed to read, watch TV or pass time until 10 p.m. By then, the test needs to be started. The lights are turned out and the patient attempts falling asleep," Hafey said. "I may try different therapies on the patient such as CPAP, BiPAP or supplemental oxygen depending on patient needs. The test will continue until around 5 a.m., after which I will wake the patient up and begin taking the wires off."

If a patient has sleep apnea, the main treatment will usually be Continuous Positive Airway Pressure or CPAP. Hafey said this treatment keeps the patient's airway open while they sleep to avoid airway collapse, which aids breathing and helps prevent frequent awakenings.

If this CPAP pressure can't be tolerated or more advanced therapy is needed, Hafey said Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) treatment might be more successful.

CPAP and BiPAP machines are common solutions for sleep apnea because they help to keep airways open. The machine, about the size of a toaster, has a tube with a mask attached and is relatively quiet. If you are diagnosed with sleep apnea, you will likely receive a prescription for a CPAP or BiPAP machine to help regulate your breathing. The machine sits by your bed and you wear a mask all night. It sounds strange, but people get used to it quickly. The tradeoff of good sleep is well worth it.  

If these treatments don't work, another treatment option might be supplemental oxygen.

"Patients may have low oxygen saturation while asleep without breathing problems (pauses or shallow breathing), and in this case, oxygen might be necessary to bring their saturation levels up while asleep," she said. "One to two liters usually helps."

Why quality sleep should be a priority

Hafey said good, sound sleep is extremely important — as important as eating right or exercising.

"Good quality sleep is different from getting enough sleep. People can sleep for 8 or more hours but still not feel rested. This is because they are not getting quality sleep," she said. "Quality sleep is the sleep that makes you wake up feeling refreshed in the morning."

Deep, REM sleep is what restores a person's tissue, muscles, and body, Hafey said.

"REM sleep is restorative for the mind. Getting REM sleep repairs memory and cognition. Not getting this deep sleep makes one's mind not as sharp and leaving them feeling foggy throughout the day," she said. "Studies have also shown that it is more or just as dangerous to drive sleep-deprived as it is drunk."

The Bock’s Office: ‘Captain Marvel’ feisty fun in new turn for superhero saga

If you saw a little old lady on a busy train, would you offer her a seat or punch her in the face? Most of us might forgo cold-cocking the elderly, but the eponymous character of “Captain Marvel” has seen too much to assume the best of people.

As an outsider on the planet Hala, a young woman named Vers (Brie Larson) has found her place in the universe as a member of Starforce, a military group dedicated to protecting the people of the Kree from the Skrulls, a race of shape-shifters with whom they have been at war for as long as she can remember.

However, Vers’ memory isn’t the most reliable; she has little recollection of where she came from before being taken in by Starforce and her mentor, Yon-Rogg (Jude Law), with whom she has been training constantly to control her latent energy powers. On a supposed rescue mission that results in an ambush, she is taken hostage by the Skrulls and tortured in the hopes of gaining crucial information that would help them against the Kree.

Instead, their new captive unleashes hell and easily escapes, though the nearby world where Vers finds herself stranded is a whole new adventure.

The planet that she knows only as C-53 — or, as its inhabitants refer to it, Earth — should only be a temporary stop as she awaits a rendezvous with her teammates, though between the enemies that have tracked her location and government agents who are most interested in her sudden appearance, the fight is on to get back home in one piece.

Yet, the more Vers seeks answers about why the Skrulls are so intent on finding her, the more she learns why Earth feels so familiar to her.

With her star on the rise, an Oscar winner like Larson makes perfect sense on paper to play the part of a powerful female hero, but it’s her dynamic personality that shows she’s more than capable of taking on such a big role.

With more than 50 years in existence, Carol Danvers — Vers’ full name, as she discovers — is the comic book mainstay we’ve been waiting to see burst onto the screen in full force, and Larson is just the one to embody her power and unapologetic nature, which is aided along but not dependent on the photon blasts that are only part of her abilities.

Seeing a super-powered being may be getting old for most of the audience, but for SHIELD Agent Nick Fury, it’s a new experience when he sees a woman in a laser tag suit blasting energy from her hands. A digitally de-aged Samuel L. Jackson has the most screen time yet as the man who will go on to form The Avengers, currently a mid-level worker with a full head of hair and a little more optimism.

Heavy is the head that wears the eyepatch, and we’re all waiting to find out how that accessory found its way to him.

With a niche for playing smug villains in the “Star Wars” universe and other franchises, Ben Mendelsohn makes a fine fit in thick makeup as Talos, the head of the Skrulls, who swiftly infiltrate Earth in the pursuit of their prisoner and maybe something more.

Meanwhile, Law adds the right kind of aggressive authoritative attitude as the leader of Starforce, though he’s outshone by Annette Bening as both an Earth scientist who keeps popping into Carol’s dreams, and the Supreme Intelligence, the faceless ruler of the Kree, which takes different forms based on every person’s perspective of whom they most respect.

Kinda telling that Carol doesn’t see her direct supervisor that way, ain’t it?

The tangled past of the character — who had the mantle Ms. Marvel when she first took on hero status — is well-reflected in the screenplay by director team Anna Boden and Ryan Fleck and co-scripters Geneva Robertson-Dworet, Nicole Perlman and Meg LeFauve.

Unlike the straightforward approach of most of the Marvel Comics entries, the narrative style is heavy on flashbacks, many of which are fuzzy on the details as Carol comes to find that not everyone she’s come to trust is deserving.

Set in 1995, nostalgia plays a big part from the moment she crash-lands in a Blockbuster Video — plenty of those left — and begins soaking up the culture that she didn’t even know she was missing, with the timeframe encapsulated in a ’90s soundtrack with TLC, Nirvana, Salt-N-Pepa and perhaps most appropriately in No Doubt’s “Just a Girl.”

Besides borrowing its musical cues — and a few key players — from “Guardians of the Galaxy,” the newest from Marvel Studios helps expand the ever-expanding universe with the first of its movies to be centered solely on a woman.

In case you’re wondering, “Elektra” came out before the studio’s formation, but would you really claim it if you had the choice?

Some pointed observations range from our hero being told to smile more by random dudes and regular harassment in her background as an Air Force pilot, but the most telling is a receiver in her neck that supposedly keeps her dangerous powers restrained, ultimately under the heel of her superiors.

But, since we’re talking about a gal who can jury-rig an intergalactic communicator out of a Game Boy and a payphone, you can imagine it’s only a matter of time before she hits her potential.

A few too many origin story weaknesses — not to mention attempts to parallel park its way into the Marvel timeline — keep “Captain Marvel” from truly fulfilling its goals, though not for lack of effort from its directors and star.

With a mantra of “higher, further, faster,” Carol Danvers will only soar more in future appearances, and the sooner the better.

Tony Stark still needs a ride home.